The problems asked how to count infinite sets of various physical objects. Justifications of the answers, or solutions, would usually be based on those descriptions or on formulas that themselves are based on those descriptions. The original statement of the problems provided a suggestion for how to do it for Problem 1.

**1**.**In how many ways {**All N-boards either begin with a square or a domino. Since we are looking at just one end, we have a partition of N-boards into two sets*. The size of the set that begins with a square is*f*_{N}} can a 1 x N rectangle (called an N-board) be tiled by dominoes and squares?*f*_{N-1}. The size of the set that begins with a domino is*f*_{N–2}. So*f*_{N}=*f*_{N–1}+*f*_{N–2}. To completely determine where this equation holds, we need to check the starting values. Combinatorists usually say that the size of a set containing the empty set is 1, so we’ll say that*f*_{0}= 1. Clearly*f*_{1}= 1 and*f*_{2}= 2. Thus*f*_{N}=*f*_{N–1}+*f*_{N–2}holds for N=2 and above.

*If we look at the other end of the N-boards, the partition will be different but the counts will be the same.

**2**.**In how many ways {**There are two ways to look at this.*g*_{N}} can an N-board be symmetrically tiled by dominoes and squares?- a) Imitating the solution to problem 1 we can partition symmetric N-boards into those which end in squares and in dominoes. Since they are symmetric, they will have to have the same type of tile at both ends and the board between the two end tiles must be symmetric. Thus, the number that end in squares =
*g*_{N–2}and the number that end in dominoes =*g*_{N–4}. So*g*_{N}=*g*_{N–2 }+*g*_{N–-4}. Given that*g*_{0}=*g*_{1}=*g*_{3}= 1,*g*_{2}=*g*_{5}= 2, and*g*_{4}= 3, then*g*_{N}=*g*_{N–2 }+*g*_{N–4}holds for N=4 and above. - b) Alternatively, we can observe that a board of odd length, say 2N+1, must have a central square with two arms of equal length N that are mirror images of each other. Thus
*g*_{2N+1 }=*f*_{N}for N ≥ 0. A board of even length, say 2N, has, either a central domino or a central empty set with two arms of equal length N-1 or N respectively that are mirror images of each other. Thus*g*_{2N}=*f*_{N–1}+*f*_{N}=*f*_{N+1}for N > 0. For N = 0,*g*_{2N}=*g*_{0}= 1 =*f*_{1}=*f*_{N+1}, so*g*_{2N}=*f*_{N+1 }for N ≥ 0.

By the way, the two arguments above have proved that the formula in a) produces the same sequence as the formulas in b).

**3**.**In how many ways {***h*_{N}} can an N-board be tiled by dominoes and squares where two tilings, which are the same when turned 180°, are now considered the same?

The best way is to attack this problem seems to do alternative b) first. Observe that the non-symmetric N-boards come in pairs, one a reflection of the other, so we only want to count half of them. On the other hand, we want to count all the symmetric N-boards. In Problem 2 we said there are *g*_{N} symmetric N-boards. The count of the remaining non-symmetric N-boards is thus *f*_{N} – *g*_{N.}. So h_{N} = (*f*_{N} – *g*_{N})/2 + *g*_{N} = (*f*_{N} + *g*_{N})/2 for N ≥ 0.

- a) If you looked at the answer you can see that the recursive formula is complicated. However, it can be derived from the formula in alternative a). If the board is of even length, then
*h*_{2N}= (*f*_{2N}+*g*_{2N})/2 = (*f*_{2N}+*f*_{N+1})/2 = (*f*_{2N–-1}+*f*_{2N-2}+*f*_{N}+*f*_{N}_{–1})/2 = (*f*_{2N–1}+*f*_{N–1})/2 +*(f*_{2N–2}+*f*_{N})/2 = h_{2N–1}+*h*_{2N–2. }However, if we apply the same equations for a board of odd length we get*h*_{2N+1}=*h*_{2N}+*h*_{2N–1}–*f*_{N–1}. To get rid of the pesky*f*-term, we move it to the left side of the equation while moving the*h*-term on the left to the right, giving us a formula for*f*as a function of*h*. Now we apply the identity*f*_{N–-1}+*f*_{N–2}–*f*_{N}= 0 to get a recursive identity which can be written*h*_{2N+1}=*h*_{2N}+ 2*h*_{2N–1}–*h*_{2N–2}–*h*_{2N–4}–*h*_{2N–5}for N > 2. All the initial values can be determined from the formula in part a) or directly. (The recursive identity can be written in alternative but equivalent ways. I don’t have a story proof for it. You are welcome to try your hand.) **4**.**How many ways {***c*_{N}} can an N-circle be tiled by dominoes and squares where tilings, which are the same when rotated or flipped 180°, are considered different?

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**5 (extra credit). How many ways can a bracelet of length N be beaded by beads of lengths 1 and 2? There are 4 variations. **i) This variation is problem 4.

- ii) This variation identifies bracelets that can be rotated into each other
**{**.*d*_{N}}

iii) This variation identifies flips **{ e_{N}}**.

- iv) The final variation identifies rotations and flips. Since every rotation can be implemented by two flips, this is the same as variation iii.